Professor of Psychology
Social, Cognition & Perception

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Research


How do goals and plans affect cognition and behavior?

My research concerns the question of how goals and plans affect cognition and behavior. It spans a number of areas in social psychology, cognition and perception, neuropsychology, and industrial and organizational psychology.

Four different theoretical concepts stimulate this research:

1) Mindsets

Deliberating which goals to pursue versus planning the implementation of set goals leads to different cognitive orientations (i.e., deliberative and implemental mindsets, respectively). We observed that the deliberative mindset leads to an accurate and impartial analysis of information that speaks to the feasibility and desirability of possible goals, whereas the implemental mindset promotes an optimistic and partial analysis of such information. Moreover, the deliberative mindset is associated with open-mindedness, whereas the implemental mindset is characterized by closed-mindedness.

We are currently investigating how deliberative and implemental mindsets differentially affect illusionary optimism and people's search for information that relates to ongoing self-views. Moreover, we study how mindsets affect the strength of attitudes and the effectiveness of action control. Also, implicit ways of activating deliberative and implemental mindsets are explored.

2) Implementation Intentions

People can delegate the initiation of goal-directed behavior to environmental stimuli by forming so-called implementation intentions (if-then plans of the format: If situation x is encountered, then I will perform behavior y!). We observed that forming implementation intentions facilitates detecting, attending to, and recalling the critical situation. Moreover, in the presence of the critical situation the initiation of the specified goal-directed behavior is immediate, efficient, and does not need a conscious intent.

Finally, we study whether and how implementation intentions help people meet their health goals (e.g., exercising more, eating less, taking pills regularly), whether people who are known to have problems with action control also benefit from implementation intentions (e.g., frontal lobe patients, schizophrenics, children with ADHD, alcoholics), and whether forming implementation intentions alleviates disruptive influences in negotiations between opposing parties.

3) Self-defining Goals

Committing oneself to a self-defining goal (e.g., becoming a good lawyer, mother, scientist) instigates an enduring striving towards possessing the desired outcome. We currently explore whether and how the self-defining goal of becoming an egalitarian person reduces stereotyping and prejudice, and whether effective suppression of stereotypes via such goals is void of rebound effects (i.e., subsequent stereotype activation). We also test whether sharing one's behavioral intentions with others reduces the enactment of these intentions, given that such public intending may produce a sense of identity completeness.

4) Nonconscious Goal Pursuits

In a recent line of research we explore whether and how conscious goal pursuits differ from nonconscious goal pursuits. First, various problems of action control that demand flexibility rather than rigidity are identified and it is analyzed whether nonconscious goal pursuits are equally effective in solving these problems as conscious goal pursuits. Second, various cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of goal conflicts are identified and it is analyzed whether these can be observed for conscious and nonconscious goal pursuits alike. Third, we explore whether there is dissociation between the variables that determine a strong feeling of intending to reach a goal and the variables that predict successful goal attainment.

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Biography


B.A., Universitaet Regensburg, 1973
M.A., Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 1977
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin, 1981
Habilitation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 1987



Positions


Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum, 1982-1983.
Junior Researcher, Max-Planck-Institute for Psychological Research, Munich, 1984-1988.
Senior Researcher, Max-Planck-Institute for Psychological Research (Coordinator of the Intention & Action Group), Munich, 1989-1992.
Professor, Social Psychology and Motivation, University of Konstanz, since 1993.
Professor, Social-Personality Psychology, New York University, since 1999.



Awards and Honors

Max Planck Research Award, 1990
TRANSCOOP Award, 1994
Fellow, Academia Europaea, 1996.
Charter Fellow of the American Psychological Society, 1998.
Fellow, American Psychological Association, 2002

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Selected Publications



In press

Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). Setting one's mind on action: Planning out goal striving in advance. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds.),  Emerging trends in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Gollwitzer, P. M., Martiny-Huenger, T., & Oettingen, G. (in press). Affective con-sequences of intentional action control. Advances in Motivation Science.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (in press). From studying the determinants of action to analyzing its regulation. Health Psychology Review.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (in press). Motivation and action. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (in press). Motivation, History of the concept. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Janczyk, M., Dambacher, M., Bieleke, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). The benefit of no choice: Goal-directed plans enhance perceptual processing. Psychological Research.

Martiny-Huenger, T., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (in press). Selective attention to in- and outgroup members systematically influences intergroup bias. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Martiny-Huenger, T., Martiny, S. E., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). Action control by if-then planning: Explicating the mechanisms of strategic automaticity in regard to objective and subjective agency. In B. Eitam & P. Haggard (Eds.), Human agency: Functions and mechanisms. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thürmer, J. L., Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). A self-regulation perspective on hidden profile problems: If-then planning to review information improves group decisions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Thürmer, J. L., Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). Planning high performance: Can groups and teams benefit from implementation intentions? In M. D. Mumford & M. Frese (Eds.), The psychology of planning in organizations: Research and applications. New York, NY: Routledge.


2014

Braver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., et al., Gollwitzer, P. M., et al. (2014). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 443-472.

Büttner, O. B., Wieber, F., Schulz, A. M., Bayer, U. C., Florack, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2014). Visual attention and goal pursuit: Deliberative and implemental mindsets affect breadth of attention. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1248-1259.

Gantman, A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Mindful mindlessness in goal pursuit (pp.236-257). In A. Ie, C. D. Ngnoumen, & E. J. Langer (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of mindfulness. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (2014). Weakness of the will: Is a quick fix possible? Motivation and Emotion, 38, 305-322.

Longoni, C., Gollwitzer. P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). A green paradox: Validating green choices has ironic effects on behavior, cognition, and perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 158-165.

Maglio, S. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen. G. (2014). Emotion and control in the planning of goals. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 620-634

Martiny-Huenger, T., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Distractor devaluation in a flanker task: Object-specific effects without distractor recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 613-625

Oettingen, G., Ahn, J. T., Gollwitzer, P. M., Kappes, A., & Kawada, C. L. K. (2014). Goal projection and giving help. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 204-214.

Thürmer, J. L., Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (in press). Planning high performance: Can groups and teams benefit from implementation intentions? In M. D. Mumford & M. Frese (Eds.), The psychology of planning in organizations: Research and applications. New York, NY: Routledge.

Wieber, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2014). Strategic regulation of mimicry effects by implementation intentions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 31-39.

Wieber, F. , Sezer, L. A. , & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2014). Asking "why" helps action control by goals but not plans. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 65-78.


2013

Gawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134-145.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Marquardt, M. K., Scherer, M., & Fujita, K. (2013). Identity-goal threats: Engaging in distinct compensatory efforts. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 555-562.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Gantman, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Intention, social psychology of. In B. Kaldis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy and the social sciences. (Vol. 9, pp. 492-493). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Implementation intentions. In M. Gellman & J. R. Turner (Eds.), In Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (pp. 1043-1048). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165.

Maglio, S. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Action control by implementation intentions: The role of discrete emotions. In A. Clark, J. Kiverstein, & T. Vierkant (Eds.), Decomposing the will (pp. 221-243). New York: Oxford University Press.

Oettingen, G., Wittchen, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013) Regulating goal pursuit through mental contrasting with implementation intentions. In A. E. Locke & G. Latham (Eds.), New developments in goal setting and task performance (pp. 523-548). New York, NY: Routledge.

Schweiger Gallo, I., Cohen, A.-L., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Neurophysiological correlates of the self-regulation of goal pursuit. In P. A. Hall (Ed.), Social neuroscience and public health (pp. 19-33). New York: Springer Verlag.

Seebaß, G., Schmitz, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (Eds.). (2013).  Acting intentionally and its limits: Individuals, groups, institutions. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Seebaß, G., Schmitz, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Introduction (pp. 1-46). In G. Seebaß, M. Schmitz, & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Acting intentionally and its limits: Individuals, groups, institutions. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Sheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2013). Nonconscious processes and health. Health Psychology, 32, 460-473.

Sheeran, P., Harris, P., Vaughan, J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P.M. (2013). Gone exercising: Mental contrasting promotes physical activity among overweight, middle-aged, low-SES fishermen. Health Psychology, 32, 802-809.

Stern, C., Cole, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., & Balcetis, E. (2013). Effects of implementation intentions on anxiety, perceived proximity, and motor performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 623-635.

Thürmer, J. L., McCrea, S. M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Regulating self-defensiveness: If-Then plans prevent claiming and creating performance handicaps. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 712-725.

Wieber, F., Thürmer, J. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Intentional action control in individuals and groups. In G. Seebaß, M. Schmitz, & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Acting intentionally and its limits: Individuals, groups, institutions (pp. 133-162). Berlin: DeGruyter.


2012

Achtziger, A., Bayer, U. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Committing to implementation intentions: Attention and memory effects for selected situational cues. Motivation & Emotion, 36, 287-303.

Achtziger, A., Martiny, S. E., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Metacognitive processes in the self-regulation of goal pursuit. In P. Brinol & K. G. DeMarree (Eds.), Social metacognition (pp. 121-139). New York: Psychology Press.

Cohen, A-L., Jaudas, A., Hirschhorn, E., Sobin, Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). The specificity of prospective memory costs. Memory, 20, 848-864.

Schweiger, Gallo, I., McCulloch, K. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Differential effects of various types of implementation intentions on the regulation of disgust. Social Cognition, 30, 1-17.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Mindset theory of action phases. In P. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol.1, pp. 526-545). London: Sage Publications.

Gollwitzer, P. M. & Oettingen, G. (2012). Goal pursuit. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 208-231). New York: Oxford University Press.

Nenkov, G. Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Pre- versus postdecisional deliberation and goal commitment: The positive effects of defensiveness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 106-121.

Oettingen, G., Marquardt, M. K., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Mental contrasting turns positive feedback on creative potential into successful performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 990-996.

Schweiger-Gallo, I., Pfau, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Furnishing hypnotic instructions with implementation intentions enhances hypnotic responsiveness. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1023-1030.

Webb, T. L., Schweiger Gallo, I., Miles, E., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Effective regulation of affect: An action control perspective on emotion regulation. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 143-186.

Webb, T. L., Sheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Trötschel, R. (2012). Strategic control over the unhelpful effects of primed social categories and goals. Journal of Psychology, 220, 187-193.

Wieber, F., Thürmer, J. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Collective action control by goals and plans: Applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance. American Journal of Psychology, 125, 275-290.


2011

Adriaanse, M. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., de Ridder, D. T. D., de Wit, J. B. F., & Kroese, F. M. (2011). Breaking habits with implementation intentions: A test of underlying processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 502-512.

Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26.

Gawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit executive functions in children with ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 616-646.

Gawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit delay of gratification performance in children with and without ADHD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 442-455.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Barry, H., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Needs and incentives as sources of goals. In H. Aarts & A. Elliot (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior (pp.115-149). New York: Psychology Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Planning promotes goal striving. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd Ed., pp. 162-185). New York, London: Guilford.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., Trötschel, R., & Webb, T. (2011). Self-regulation of behavioral priming effects. Psychological Science, 22, 901-907.

Kirk, D., Gollwitzer, P. M., Carnevale, P. J. (2011). Self-regulation in ultimatum bargaining: Goals and plans help accepting unfair but profitable offers. Social Cognition, 29, 528-546.

Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Mental contrasting promotes integrative bargaining. International Journal of Conflict Management, 22, 324-341.

Troetschel, R., Hueffmeier, J., Loschelder, D. D., Schwartz, K., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Perspective taking as a means to overcome motivational barriers in negotiations: When putting oneself into the opponent's shoes helps to walk towards agreements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 771-790.

Wieber, F., von Suchodoletz, A., Heikamp, T., Trommsdorff, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). If-then planning helps school-aged children to ignore attractive distractions. Social Psychology, 42, 39-47.


2010

Achtziger, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Motivation und Volition im Handlungsverlauf. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation und Handeln (4th ed., pp. 309-335). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Achtziger, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Motivation and volition in the course of action. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action (2nd ed., pp. 275-299). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Witt, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277-1293.

Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Motivation. In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (5th ed., pp. 268-316). New York: Wiley.

Bayer, U. C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Achtziger, A. (2010). Staying on track: Planned goal striving is protected from disruptive internal states. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 505-514.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Gawrilow, C., & Oettingen, G. (2010). The power of planning: Self-control by effective goal-striving. In R. R. Hassin, K. N. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self control in society, mind, and brain (pp. 279-296). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Wieber, F., Meyers, A. L., & McCrea, S. M. (2010). How to maximize implementation intention effects. In C. R. Agnew, D. E. Carlston, W. G. Graziano, J. R. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp.137-161).New York: Oxford Press.

Mendoza, S. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Amodio, D. M. (2010). Reducing the expression of implicit stereotypes: Reflexive control through implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 512-523.

Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Strategies of setting and implementing goals: Mental contrasting and implementation intentions. In J. E. Maddux & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology (pp. 114-135). New York: Guilford.

Parks-Stamm, E. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Implementation intentions and test anxiety: Shielding academic performance from distraction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 30-33.

Parks-Stamm, E. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Making sense of one's actions in an explanatory vacuum: The interpretation of nonconscious goal striving. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 531-542.

Stadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Intervention effects of information and self-regulation on eating fruits and vegetables over two years. Health Psychology, 29, 274-283.

Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Overcoming procrastination through planning. In C. Andreou & M. D. White (Eds.), The thief of time: Philosophical essays on procrastination (pp. 185-205). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wieber, F., Odenthal, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Self-efficacy feelings moderate implementation intention effects. Self and Identity, 9, 177-194.


2009

Achtziger, A., Fehr, T., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Rockstroh, B. (2009). Strategies of intention formation are reflected in continuous MEG activity. Social Neuroscience, 4, 11-27.

Bayer, U. C., Achtziger, A., Gollwitzer, P. M. & Moskowitz, G. (2009). Responding to subliminal cues: Do if-then plans facilitate action preparation and initiation without conscious intent? Social Cognition, 27, 183-201.

Faude-Koivisto, T., Würz, D., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Implementation intentions: The mental representations and cognitive procedures of IF-THEN planning. In W. Klein & K. Markman (Eds.), The handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 69-86). New York: Guilford.

Gilbert, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Cohen, A.-L., Oettingen, G., & Burgess, P. W. (2009). Separable brain systems supporting cued versus self-initiated realization of delayed intentions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 905-15.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Parks-Stamm, E. J., & Oettingen, G. (2009). Living on the edge: Shifting between nonconscious and conscious goal pursuit. In Morsella, E., Bargh, J. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (Eds.), Oxford handbook of human action (pp. 603 - 624). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2009). Self-regulation of consumer decision making and behavior: The role of implementation intentions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 593-607.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., Michalski, V., & Seifert, A. E. (2009). When intentions go public: Does social reality widen the intention-behavior gap? Psychological Science, 20, 612-618.

Morsella, E., Bargh, J. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (Eds.). (2009). Oxford handbook of human action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Embodied goal pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1210-1213.

Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Making goal pursuit effective: Expectancy-dependent goal setting and planned goal striving. In J. P. Forgas, R. Baumeister, & D. M. Tice (Eds.), The psychology of self-regulation: Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes (pp. 127-146). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Parks-Stamm, E. J., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Goal implementation: The benefits and costs of IF-THEN planning. In H. Grant & G. B. Moskowitz (Eds.), The big book of goals (pp. 362 - 391). New York: Guilford.

Schweiger Gallo, I., Keil, A., McCulloch, K. C., Rockstroh, B., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Strategic automation of emotion regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 11-31.

Stadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Physical activity in women: Effects of a self-regulation intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 29-34.

von Suchodoletz, A., Trommsdorff, G., Heikamp, T., Wieber, F., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Transition to school: The role of kindergarten children's behavior regulation. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 561-566.


2008

Achtziger, A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2008). Implementation intentions and shielding goal striving from unwanted thoughts and feelings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 381-393.

Cohen, A.-L., Bayer, U. C., Jaudas, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Self-regulatory strategy and executive control: Implementation intentions modulate task switching and Simon task performance. Psychological Research, 72, 12-26.

Cohen, A.-L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). The costs of remembering to remember: Cognitive load and implementation intentions influence ongoing task performance. In M. Kliegel, M. McDaniel, & G. Einstein (Eds.), Prospective memory: Cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, and applied perspectives (pp. 367-390). New York: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cohen, A.-L., Jaudas, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Number of cues influences the cost of remembering to remember. Memory & Cognition, 36, 149-156.

Gawrilow, C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Implementation intentions facilitate response inhibition in children with ADHD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 261-280.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Parks-Stamm, E. J., Jaudas, A., & Sheeran, P. (2008).
Flexible tenacity in goal pursuit. In J. Shah & W. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 325-341). New York: Guilford Press.

Henderson, M. D., de Liver, Y., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). The effects of an implemental mind-set on attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 396-411.

Oettingen, G., Sevincer, A. T., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2008). Goal pursuit in the context of culture. In R. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), The handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 191-211). San Diego: Elsevier/Academic Press.


2007

Bayer, C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2007). Boosting scholastic test scores by willpower: The role of implementation intentions. Self and Identity, 6, 1-19.

Fujita, K., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Mind-sets and pre-conscious open-mindedness to incidental information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 48-61.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). The role of goal setting and goal striving in medical adherence. In D. C. Park & L. L. Liu (Eds.), Medical adherence and aging: Social and cognitive perspectives (pp. 23-47). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Henderson, M. D., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Implementation intentions and disengagement from a failing course of action. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 81-102.

Parks-Stamm, E., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2007). Action control by implementation intentions: Effective cue detection and efficient response initiation. Social Cognition, 25, 248-266.

Paul, I., Gawrilow, C., Zech, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., Rockstroh, B., Odenthal, G., Kratzer, W., & Wienbruch, C. (2007). If-then planning modulates the P300 in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NeuroReport, 18, 653-657.

Perkins, M. B., Jensen, P. S., Jaccard, J., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., Pappadopulos, E., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2007). Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: What do we know? Psychiatric Services, 58, 342-348.


2006

Cohen, A.-L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2006). If-then plans and the intentional control of thoughts, feelings, and action. In N. Sebanz & W. Prinz (Eds.), Disorders of volition (pp. 151-172). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (2006). Open questions in implementation intention research. Social Psychological Review, 8, 14-18.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119.

Oettingen, G., Grant, H., Smith, P. K., Skinner, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2006). Nonconscious goal pursuit: Acting in an explanatory vacuum. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 668-675.

Sheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2006). Implementation intentions: Strategic automatisation of goal striving. In D. T. M. de Ridder & J. B. F. de Wit (Eds.), Self-regulation in health behavior (pp. 121-145). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


2005

Bayer, U. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). Mindset effects on information search in self-evaluation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 313-327.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2005). Automaticity in goal pursuit. In A. Elliot & C. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 624-646). New York: Guilford.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Bayer, U., & McCulloch, K. (2005). The control of the unwanted. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 485-515). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sheeran, P., Milne, S., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). Implementation intentions and health behaviour. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models (2nd Ed., pp. 276-323). Berkshire, UK: Open University Press.

Sheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 87-98.


2004

Aarts, H., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Hassin, R. (2004). Goal contagion: Perceiving is for pursuing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 23-37.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Fujita, K., & Oettingen, G. (2004). Planning and the implementation of goals. In R. Baumeister & K. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications (pp. 211-228). New York : Guilford Press.

Kawada, C., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2004). The projection of implicit and explicit goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 545-559.


2003

Gollwitzer, P. M. (2003). Why we thought that action mind-sets affect illusions of control. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 259-267.

2001

Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Chai, A. L., Barndollar, K., & Troetschel, R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014-1027.

Brandstaetter, V., Lengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Implementation intentions and efficient action initiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 946-960.

Lengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Reflective and reflexive action control in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychology, 15, 80-100.

1999

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bayer, U. (1999). Deliberative versus implemental mindsets in the control of action. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 403-422). New York: Guilford.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Rohloff, U. B. (1999). The speed of goal pursuit. In R. S. Wyer (Ed.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 12, pp. 147-159). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Moskowitz, G. B., Gollwitzer, P. M., Wasel, W., & Schaal, B. (1999). Preconscious control of stereotype activation through chronic egalitarian goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 167-184.

1998

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Kirchhof, O. (1998). The willful pursuit of identity. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Life-span perspectives on motivation and control (pp. 389-423). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (1998). The emergence and implementation of health goals. Psychology and Health, 13, 687-715.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Schaal, B. (1998). Metacognition in action: The importance of implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 124-136.

1997

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstaetter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186-199.

1996

Brunstein, J. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). Effects of failure on subsequent performance: The importance of self-defining goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 395-407.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.) (1996). The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Moskowitz, G. B. (1996). Goal effects on action and cognition. In E. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 361-399). New York: Guilford Press.

1995

Taylor, S. E., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1995). Effects of mindset on positive illusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 213-226.

1993

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 141-185.

1990

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1990). Action phases and mind-sets. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), The handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 53-92). New York: Guilford Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Heckhausen, H., & Steller, B. (1990). Deliberative vs. implemental mind-sets: Cognitive tuning toward congruous thoughts and information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1119-1127.

1989

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Kinney, R. F. (1989). Effects of deliberative and implemental mind-sets on the illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 531-542.

1986

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1986). Striving for specific identities: The social reality of self-symbolizing. In R. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 143-159). New York: Springer-Verlag.

1985

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Wicklund, R. A. (1985). Self-symbolizing and the neglect of others' perspectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 702-715.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Wicklund, R. A. (1985). The pursuit of self-defining goals. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 61-85). Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

1982

Gollwitzer, P. M., Earle, W. B., & Stephan, W. G. (1982). Affect as a determinant of egotism: Residual excitation and performance attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 702-709.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Wicklund, R. A., & Hilton, J. L. (1982). Admission of failure and symbolic self-completion: Extending Lewinian theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 358-371.

Wicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1982). Symbolic self-completion. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

1981

Schönbach, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., Stiepel, G., & Wagner, U. (1981). Education and intergroup attitudes. European monographs in social psychology (Vol. 229). London: Academic Press.

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Address


Peter Gollwitzer

Professor of Psychology

Department of Psychology
New York University
6 Washington Place, Room 780
New York, NY 10003
Phone: (212) 998-7875
Fax: (212) 995-4966
Email: peter.gollwitzer@nyu.edu

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