|Michael S. Landy|
Research | Biography | Publications | Address
How does vision determine the size, shape and boundaries of objects in our environment? Research in my laboratory centers on various aspects of visual perception and the visual control of action. Recent research on the visual system has grown into an exciting collaboration among psychologists, physiologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. My research continues to blur the lines between these fields in two ways. First, traditional psychophysical methods are enhanced using advanced computer graphics and image processing techniques for stimulus generation and analysis. Second, both mathematical methods and computer simulations are used to model the psychophysical results. As much as possible, the simulation models attempt to reflect a feasible physiological implementation, as I have a strong interest in neural network models of vision. Next, I describe each broad area of my research in turn.
I have an enduring interest in the use of computational techniques to study human vision. My doctoral dissertation concerned the computer simulation of a neural network model of visual learning. For this work, I received the Ph.D. from the Department of Computer and Communication Sciences of the University of Michigan in 1981, having worked primarily with John Holland. I then moved to New York University and worked as a postdoctoral research associate with George Sperling, examining aspects of low bandwidth visual image sequences, in particular as applied to low bandwidth communication systems for the deaf (involving perceptual studies of American Sign Language). During that time I also co-wrote the HIPS image processing software. In 1984 I joined the faculty at NYU, and have continued to work on problems in visual perception, concentrating on perception of depth and texture. In 1992-3, I spent a sabbatical year as a National Research Council Senior Research Associate at NASA Ames Research Center. In the summer of 1998, I visited the Institut d'Ingénierie de la Vision, Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Étienne, collaborating on work on texture appearance. In 1999-2002, I spent a sabbatical year and much of the subsequent two years at the School of Optometry, University of California at Berkeley, working with Prof. Martin S. Banks on various projects in depth perception and stereopsis, visiting again 2015-2016.
Norton, E. H., Fleming, S. M., Daw, N. D. & Landy, M. S. (2017). Suboptimal criterion learning in static and dynamic environments. PLoS Computational Biology, 13(1):e1005304. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005304
Sun, P. & Landy, M. S. (2016). A two-stage process model of sensory discrimination: An alternative to drift diffusion. Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 11259-11274.
Westrick, Z. M., Heeger, D. J. & Landy, M. S. (2016). Pattern adaptation and normalization reweighting. Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 9805-9816.
Hudson, T. E. & Landy, M. S. (2016). Sinewave-perturbed errors reveal multiple coordinate systems for sensory-motor adaptation. Vision Research, 119, 82-98.
Ackermann, J. F. & Landy, M. S. (2015). Suboptimal decision criteria are predicted by subjectively weighted probabilities and rewards. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77, 638-658.
Saarela, T. & Landy, M. S. (2015). Integration of feature dimensions but failure of attentional selection in object recognition. Current Biology, 25 920-927.
Westrick, Z. M., Henry, C. A. & Landy, M. S. (2013). Inconsistent channel bandwidth estimates suggest winner-take-all nonlinearity in second-order vision. Vision Research, 81, 58-68.
Landy, M. S., Trommershäuser, J. & Daw, N. D. (2012). Dynamic estimation of task-relevant variance in movement under risk. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 12702-12711.
Wolpert, D. M. & Landy, M. S. (2012). Motor control is decision-making, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 22 996-1003.
Girshick, A. R., Landy, M. S. & Simoncelli, E. P. (2011). Cardinal rules: Visual orientation perception reflects knowledge of environmental statistics. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 926-932.
Oruç, I. & Landy, M. S. (2009). Scale dependence and channel switching in letter identification. Journal of Vision, 9(9):4, 1-19. http://journalofvision.org/9/9/4/.
Trommershäuser, J., Maloney, L. T. & Landy, M. S. (2009). The expected utility of movement. In Glimcher, P. W., Camerer, C. F., Fehr, E. & Poldrack, R. A. (Eds.), Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain (pp. 95-111). New York: Academic Press.
Ho, Y.-X., Landy, M. S. & Maloney, L. T. (2008). Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture. Psychological Science, 19, 196-204.
Trommershäuser, J., Maloney, L. T. & Landy, M. S. (2008). Decision making, movement planning, and statistical decision theory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 291-297.
Landy, M. S., Goutcher, R., Trommershäuser, J. & Mamassian, P. (2007). Visual estimation under risk. Journal of Vision, 7(6):4, 1-15.
Ho, Y.-X., Landy, M. S. & Maloney, L. T. (2006). How direction of illumination affects visually perceived surface roughness. Journal of Vision, 6, 634-648.
Larsson, J., Landy, M. S. & Heeger, D. J. (2006). Orientation-selective adaptation to first- and second-order patterns in human visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 862-881.
Oruç, I., Landy, M. S. & Pelli, D. G. (2006). Noise masking reveals channels for second-order letters. Vision Research, 46, 1493-1506.
Trommershäuser, J., Gepshtein, S., Maloney, L. T., Landy, M. S. & Banks, M. S. (2005). Optimal compensation for changes in task-relevant movement variability. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 7169-7178.
Banks, M. S., Gepshtein, S. & Landy, M. S. (2004).
is stereoresolution so low? Journal
of Neuroscience, 24, 2077-2089.
Landy, M. S. & Graham, N. (2004). Visual perception of texture. In
Chalupa, L. M. & Werner, J. S. (Eds.), The Visual Neurosciences
(pp. 1106-1118). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Oruç, I., Maloney, L. T. & Landy, M. S. (2003). Weighted linear cue combination with
possibly correlated error. Vision Research, 43,
Trommershäuser, J., Maloney, L. T. & Landy, M. S. (2003). Statistical decision theory and the selection of rapid, goal-directed movements. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 20, 1419-1433.
Hillis, J. M., Ernst, M. O., Banks, M. S. & Landy, M. S. (2002). Combining sensory information: mandatory fusion within, but not between, senses. Science, 298, 1627-1630.
Landy, M. S. & Oruç, I. (2002). Properties of 2nd-order spatial frequency channels. Vision Research, 42, 2311-2329.
Landy, M. S. & Kojima, H. (2001). Ideal cue combination for localizing texture-defined edges. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 18, 2307-2320.
Mamassian, P. & Landy, M. S. (2001). Interaction of visual prior constraints. Vision Research, 41, 2653-2688.
Brenner, E. & Landy, M. S. (1999). Interaction between the perceived shape of two objects. Vision Research, 39, 3834-3848.
Mamassian, P., and Landy, M. S. (1998). Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings. Vision Research 38, 2817-2832.
Wolfson, S. S., and Landy, M. S. (1995). Discrimination of orientation-defined texture edges. Vision Research 35, 2863-2877.
Landy, M. S., Maloney, L. T., and Pavel, M., eds. (1995). Exploratory Vision: The Active Eye. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Landy, M. S., Maloney, L. T., Johnston, E. B., and Young, M. J. (1995). Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: In defense of weak fusion. Vision Research 35, 389-412.
Chubb, C., Econopouly, J., and Landy, M. S. (1994). Histogram contrast analysis and the visual segregation of IID textures. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 11, 2350-2374.
Johnston, E. B., Cumming, B. G., and Landy, M. S. (1994). Integration of stereopsis and motion shape cues. Vision Research 34, 2259-2275.
Young, M. J., Landy, M. S., and Maloney, L. T. (1993). A perturbation analysis of depth perception from combinations of texture and motion cues. Vision Research 33, 2685-2696.
Landy, M. S., Dosher, B. A., Sperling, G., and Perkins, M. E. (1991). The kinetic depth effect and optic flow II. Fourier and non-Fourier motion. Vision Research 31, 859-876.
Landy, M. S., and Bergen, J. R. (1991). Texture segregation and orientation gradient. Vision Research 31, 679-691.
Landy, M. S., and Movshon, J. A., eds. (1991). Computational Models of Visual Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Landy, M. S., Cohen, Y., and Sperling, G. (1984). HIPS: Image processing under UNIX. Software and applications. Behavior Research Methods, Instrumentation, and Computers 16, 199-216.
AddressMichael S. Landy
Professor of Psychology and Neural Science
Department of Psychology